Publications (1972-)

This is a collection of books, articles, and chapters that I have written and published.

For a complete chronological bibliography with clickable links, click here.

For publications on specific topics, click on one of these the following headings, grouped into three major clusters:

1. Psycholinguistic Theory

Child Language Development

These papers examine various issues in child language development from the viewpoint of the Competition Model and the theory of item-based syntactic patterns.

The Competition Model

This is a complete listing of papers on the Competition Model that I have co-authored, showing how the model applies to child language, second language learning, aphasia, and fluency disorders. The original version of the model focused on cue competition in balanced ANOVA models. Between 1987 and 2007, we also used neural network models to elaborate aspects of the model. Beginning in 1995, we extended the model in the form of the Unified Competition Model to better understand similarities and differences between L1 and L2 learning, to include data from eCALL studies of language learning, and to align more fully with emergentist theory.

Neural Network Models of Language Learning

These papers report on neural network simulations of the learning of verb morphology in English, case-number-gender marking in German, and lexical acquisition for both sound and meaning. In the 1990s, the models used PDP back propagation. Later, we used self-organizing feature maps.

Second Language and Bilingualism

These papers trace the application of the Competition Model to the study of second language learning and bilingual processing

eCALL approaches to Second Language Learning

These papers describe the more recent development of web-based and online methods for instructed L2 learning. Many of the tutors for these eCALL studies can be found at and used from

Emergentist Theory

These papers develop basic Systems Theory ideas regarding emergent properties in order to address the basic question of "where does language form come from?"

Language Evolution

These papers outline an emergentist approach to language evolution based on the notion of a unique ecological niche.

Language and Embodied Perspective

These papers present successive refinements of the idea that sentence structure emerges from embodied perspective taking.

Experimental Evidence

This is full listing of empirical and theoretical papers by myself and others based on the Competition Model.

2. Corpus Creation and Analysis

These papers outline the development of the components of the TalkBank system for the sharing of data on spoken language in all its various formsl.

Aphasia and AphasiaBank

The CHILDES and HomeBank Projects

The TalkBank System

NLP Corpus Tools


3. Other Topics

Memory and Processing

These papers deal with various issues in memory for conversation and language processing.

Focal Lesions

These papers outline our behavioral and imaging studies of children who had experienced focal lesions during infancy.